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Current Location: Homepage » Chinese Culture » Chinese Folktales 中國民間故事 » Main Body

The Legend of Dong Yong 董永傳說

Time:2015-04-17Source:Internet
Profile:The Legend of Dong Yong 董永傳說
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
時間:2006年
Date: 2006
類別:民間文學
Category:
地區:山西,江蘇,河南,湖北
Region: Shanxi Province, Jiangsu Province, Henan Province, Hubei Province
編號:Ⅰ—9
Project No. I-9
申報地區或單位:山西省萬榮縣
Name of Applicant (region and institution): Wanrong County, Shanxi Province
江蘇省東臺市
Dongtai County, Jiangsu Province
河南省武陟縣
Wuzhi County, Henan Province
湖北省孝感市
Xiaogan City, Hubei Province
董永傳說最早載于西漢劉向的《孝子傳(圖)》。此后三國曹植的《靈芝篇》和東晉干寶的《搜神記》也都有相關記載。干寶的記載因主題突出(行孝)、情節完整(“鹿車載父”、“賣身葬父”與天女適嫁“助君償債”)而在我國農村地區廣泛流傳,成為兩千多年來故事嬗變和文學移植的母本,對后世影響深遠。由于董永與七仙女的故事是一則既有教化作用又有愛情色彩的民間傳說,其教化內容同中國民眾長治久安的大眾心理需求相適應,愛情故事又契合了民眾追求婚姻幸福的內在感情,所以它的神奇幻想同人間現實巧妙融合的藝術特色深受民眾喜愛。該傳說在長期口耳相傳的過程中,因地、因時、因人而異,不斷演變,在發展流變過程中具有了向愛情故事演變的趨勢,但主題和“母體”并沒有大的變化。20世紀以來的一百年間,董永故事一直成為擁有廣大受眾的俗文學(如說唱、戲曲)以及后起的影視文學創作追逐的題材,出現了電影黃梅戲《天仙配》等影響廣遠的作品。
The Legend of Dong Yong was recorded in as early as the Biography of Filial Sons (pictures) by Liu Xiang in West Han Dynasty. Hereafter, there were also texts about it in Five-character Poems: Ganoderma Lucidum by Cao Zhi in the Three Kingdoms and The Story of Immortals Searching by Gan Bao in East Jin Dynasty. The narration of Gan Bao has been spreading widely in the rural areas of China thanks to its highlight of theme (filialness) and complete plots (Riding the Father in a Deer Cart, Selling oneself to Fund the Funeral of His Dead Father, Heavenly Lady Making Proposal to Help Pay off Debts). It has become the source to make adaptation or implantation over 2,000 years, exerting a great influence on the future generations. As the story of Dong Yong and Seventh Immortal Girl is a folktale of edifying effects and romantic elements, the edifying content finds acknowledgement in the general public of China concerning long peace and social stability while the romantic scenarios fit in with the mentality of pursuing marital happiness at the grassroots level. Hence the popularity of its wonderful integration of magic imagination with harsh realities on the earth among the populace. During the course of circulation, the legend varied as the place, time and people and showed a sign of changing into a love story, but without big changes to the theme or main body. Over the hundred years of 20th century, the story of Dong Yong has been the theme that the popular folk literature (narration-chant and traditional opera) and the late-emerging film literature. In particular, the film Married with Heavenly Immortal Girl, a presentation of Huangmei Opera, has become a masterwork of a far-reaching impact.
董永傳說在兩千多年的漫長流傳過程中,不斷與各地的民眾生活相結合。由于民眾情感的滲透和口碑的附會,產生了富有地方特色的傳說,留下相沿而成的風俗及與董永身世有關的文物、碑碣、村落、地名等遺跡。山西省萬榮縣、江蘇省東臺市、河南省武陟縣、湖北省孝感市等地不僅有與董永相關的遺跡,而且地方志中也多有記載,都稱董永是當地人,如山東博興有董家莊、董永墓;山西萬榮小淮村有“董永故里”的匾額,民間還織造“合婚布”;河南省武陟縣每年農歷二月初三和十一月初十均舉行盛大的祭拜孝子的廟會活動;江蘇省東臺市有董家舍,南宋《方輿勝覽》即記載這里為“孝子董永故居”等。多地流傳、不斷附會的“滾雪球”現象是傳說故事常有的特點。董永傳說蘊含的歷史、文學資料對研究我國各個歷史時期社會、經濟、政治、文化,特別是文學藝術等方面的研究都有一定的價值。董永傳說的教化功能對當今建設社會主義精神文明和構建和諧社會的實踐具有一定的現實意義。
In the process of circulation over more than 2,000 years, the Legend of Dong Yong had been constantly localized, taking in various aboriginal elements. Due to penetration of the listeners’ sensation and follow-up of popularity, episodes of local color came into being, leaving us inherited custom and remains relating to background of Dong Yong such as cultural relics, tombstones, villages, and names of places. Not only have remains pertaining to Dong Yong been found in Wanrong County, Shanxi Province, Dongtai City, Jiangsu Province, Wuzhi County, Henan Province, and Xiaogan City, Hubei Province, but there are also records in local histories claiming Dong Yong to be a local: for example, there is a Dong Village and a tomb of Dong Yong in Boxing, Shandong Province. In Xiaohuai Village, Wanrong County, Shanxi Province, there is an inscribed board “The Domicile of Dong Yong” and the folks also weave a kind of “intermarriage cloth”. In Wuzhi County, Henan Province, grand temple fair activities offering sacrifice to filial sons are held on Feb. 2nd and Nov. 10th each year according to the lunar calendar. In Dongtai City, Jiangsu Province, there is one Dong Cottage, which, according to the recordings in A Complete Guide to Geography of South Song Dynasty. The snowballing phenomenon of wide circulation and constant appending is something common to the development of legends. The historical and literary information contained in the Legend of Dong Yong is of great value in studies concerning society, economy, politics and culture, literature and art in particular. The edifying function of it is also of practical significance during the course of fostering socialist ideology and decorum as well as peace and prosperity of society in this country.


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